Category Archives: Trade Press

Bossing the 351

Every now and then, when I have a bit of time, I like to post old articles about some topics relevant to this site. In this case an article from the February 1971 issue of Hot Rod magazine that discusses the Boss 351 Mustang

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Bossing the 351

By Steve Kelly

Ford Division’s Boss 351 is some kind of quick machine. Why and how the 351 Cleveland engine responds to being “bossed” is something we’ll discuss a few lines from now. But the production-line car is a matter well worth mentioning right here.

The Boss 302 is no more, at least in a production version. Like Chevrolet, Ford has found it costly and no longer necessary to build an engine to the exact size as that specified for the SCCA Trans-Am series. SCCA doesn’t require an engine to start life as a 5-liter nowadays. It can be de-stroked to meet the limit. Ford’s 302 T-A engine had a 3.00-inch stroke, and thd 351 carries a 8.5-inch arm. That 302 Boss engine wasn’t exactly cheap to produce, but the 351 Cleveland engine is an assembly-line operation, and the Boss small block parts have been redesigned to fit. Unlike Chevrolet, their enlarged sedan racing engine runs better than its earlier and smaller counterpart. When we ran the ’70 Z/28 Camaro, it wouldn’t even come near the times the ’68-69 302 Zs produced. Of course the car was different, but the ’71 Mustang is a lot different from the ’70 model. Not only is it two inches longer and wider, it is close to 150 pounds heavier. Without changing it from street-legal trim, the ’71 Boss 351 laid down a 14.09-second elapsed time at Orange County Raceway, with a speed of 1O2.78 mph. This is the same track the ’70 302 was driven over, and its best pass was 14.621 seconds with a speed of 97.5O mph. That car had a 3.91:1 limited-slip rear axle gear, just like the ’71 car, and we had to wire around the factory-installed rpm limiter to achieve that 14.621 time. With the rpm limiter removed from the Boss 851, we raised shift points to 6500 rpm for the best e.t. of 13.800 seconds and a speed of 104.82 mph. Previous to this, shifts were made at 6000 rpm. We, meaning all who drove the car that day, were impressed. But just so the story doesn’t get too romantic you should know that the car had been spending some time at Bill Stroppe’s shop in Long Beach before it was sent out on the road. While there it had been fitted with rear traction bars, a new clutch (stock type) and a set of Dough Thorley headers. We can’t vouch positiviely one way or the other as to the engine’s internal integrity, but externally, all was as it should be on a production car. Jetting hadn’t been increased, and this became evident when low-speed full-throttle stars were tried. THe engine stumbled upon transition from primary to secondary throttle opening, and during primary operation on the Autolite air-valve carburetor, the engine wanted always to run a shade on the lean side. We’re certainly not pointing any accusing fingers at this car, but we do like to keep the record straight and everyone informed. While it surely did have a good tune-up job applied, there’s no doubt that addition of headers contributed to the 351’s performance. Better rear spring tie-downs could’ve been used because wheel hop was still evident when leaving the line. After our stock test of the ’70 302 Boss, we added headers and a 4.80 Detroit Locker rear gear. After much tuning and gnashing of knuckles, the 802 put in a best performance of 13.84 seconds with a top end of 108.44 mph – this with shift points at 7200 rpm. When the headers were allowed to exit exhaust gases sans muffler restriction on the 351 Boss, it cranked out consistent 13.6 e.t’s and ran a best of 13.58. The car also registered a half-dozen 107-plus mph speeds. There was no need to go beyond 6500 rpm in each gear. A 4.90 gear would really set the car down into the low l3-second region, but unfortunately, that ratio isn’t factory-available this year. According to Ford literature, a 3.91:1 Traction-Lok is standard, and no other number is available. But there are plenty of gear cutters in the business, so it isn’t any great problem to make a change.

Now the Boss 351 is an inspiring super-car, and even though it does have a horsepower-to-weight factor over 10-to-1, insurance companies are well aware of its threat to peaceful underwriting. Insurance notwithstanding, there’s no reason everyone should buy a Boss 351. Any 351 Cleveland engine can be converted into a Boss. Maybe some people don’t like the ’71 car. It doesn’t matter. As good as the news is about how well this small-block Ford runs, the fact that Ford has outlined a way of updating early-model Cleveland engines to current standards is more appealing. Along with parts development, a new catalog entitled “Staging The Cleveland” has been published, with all kinds of inside information and parts numbers. Ford and Autolite dealers should have it by now. Incidentally, Autosport Products, Inc., who market the Shelby line, have also developed a number of aftermarket pieces for the 351-C.

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ABOVE – Exterior of Boss 351 differs little from 302 except that water pump housing is semi-integral with block. Cleveland engine has flat plate bolt-on pump cover, while 302 is complete item by itself. Ram-Air is standard. New Fords have resistor plugs and return springs in throttle cable.

BELOW – Stock high-dome Cleveland piston can be replaced by Boss level slug with higher top and valve reliefs cut full length of dome.
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The Special Vehicles Program men at Ford began their development way last year, and based their work around a 351-C-engined Mach I. It carried a wide-ratio four-speed, 3.50:1 Traction-Lok axle. Ram-Air hood scoop and F70-14 tires. As received, in stock form, the Mach I ran 15.09 seconds elapsed time with a speed of 94.52 mph. Traction bars were installed because of wheel hop, and an Autolite dual-point conversion kit (DIAZ-12A132-A) added because of high-rpm point bounce. It then ran a 14.75 e .t. and speed of 95.37 mph. First-stage work, as outlined in the Autolite manual, was begun from this point. A four-barrel aluminum intake manifold (DIZZ-9424-G) and 780 dm rated Holley carb (DOOZ-9510-R) was substituted, the resultant performance being 14.55 seconds elapsed time and a speed of 96.30 mph. This Holley four-barrel is the same one that’s used on 429 Super Cobra Jet Fords. After this, a hydraulic camshaft (DIZZ-6250- A) with the same specs as the 428 C-J hydraulic stick was selected. Use of this cam raises torque peak by 600 rpm, and is worth 29 additional horsepower over a two-barrel 351-C cam. Valve lift is A81-inch intake, A90-inch exhaust, with 270-degree intake duration and 290 degrees on the exhaust. Stock rocker arms can be retained, but new valve springs (C90Z-6513-E) with higher tension and inner dampeners are required. Also needed are new retainers. (DOAZ-6514-A), and sintered iron fulcrums (DOOZ-6A528-A). If the work is being done on a four-barrel 351-C, the retainers and fulcrums don’t need replacing. This cam presents no problem when used with an automatic transmission. Performance gain on the “mule” Mustang in Dearborn using this camshaft was significant. Elapsed time dropped to 14.26 seconds, and speed jumped to 99.03 mph. The fifth step taken involved tubular exhaust headers. Autolite-Ford doesn’t offer this item, but there’s no shortage of availability elsewhere. A set of Doug Thorley 1 7/8-inch-by-34-inch long tube headers helped the ’70 Cleveland-engined car drop its elapsed time to 14.08 seconds and got speed up to 100.23 mph. With all this accomplished, our heroes back at Ford slipped in a 3.91:1 rear axle assembly (C80Z-4209-A). The Traction-Lok torque-sensitive limited slip was retained with this lower ratio. By adding the gear, elapsed time dropped to 13.08 seconds, and speed went up to 102.63 mph. Final change to this test subject involved slipping in a Boss mechanical cam (DIZZ-6250-B). There’s more to it than just the cam. Actually, this seventh operation is considered the “Dominator Kit.” To complete it, the following items have to be included: DOAZ-6500-C 302 Boss solid lifters; DOZZ-6507 -A intake valves; DOZZ-6505-A exhaust valves, C9ZZ- 6518-A keepers; C9ZZ-6564-A rocker arms (only if converting from a two-barrel engine, or if four-barrel rockers indicate replacement is necessary); C9ZZ-6A527-A 302 threaded rocker arm studs; C9ZZ-6A528-A cylindrical sled rocker arm fulcrums; C8SZ-6A529-A 7/w-inch rocker stud nuts; C9ZZ-6A29-B %(i-inch rocker stud jam nuts; C9ZZ-6A564-A guide plates; and DOOZ-6565-B hardened pushrods which come from the 429 SCJ parts bin. This takes care of most of the parts, but because the 351 Cleveland engine is normally only equipped with a hydraulic cam, the engine has no provision for valve lash adjustment. It is “possible” to get away with using adjustable pushrods, but in some cases the pushrod-to-rocker interference is such that the adjustment end has to be placed down. This means the topside of the motor has to be dismantled to adjust the valves! In addition, rpm limit is around 6000 with adjustable pushrods, and that doesn’t allow full utilization of the mechanical cam.
So to do the job right, head modification or replacement is the answer. Using four-barrel heads from a 351-C, 0.300-inch must be milled from each pedestal, and this requires an alert machinist because the surface of each pedestal is not parallel to the head surface, due to the canted valve angle of 351-C engines.

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ABOVE – When you get to the Boss-level Cleveland engine, your V8 has canted valves, stamped rockers, H-D fulcrums, guide plates, mechanical cam with adjustment capability and super-smooth valve ports.

BELOW – Ford now uses Autolite “air-valve” 750-cfm 4-bbl on big engines (right), which is an evolution from the earlier 4300 series 4-bbl (left).
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When the milling is done, the original stud holes must be drilled .088-inch deeper (use drill size .376-.372-inch in diameter) and tapped 7/16-14 UNC thread. Then the 302 studs will go right in, and when this route is taken, use 428 valve springs (C90Z-6513-E) and 429 retainers (DOOZ-6514-A). The other method of obtaining valve adjustment is to swap over to Boss 302 heads. But this calls for some machine work too. The Cleveland engine routes water to the head via an internal passage that feeds the head. The 302 heads were made so that water is fed in from the manifold. them is fairly easy. Place a 351-C on a Boss 302 head and scribe or dykem-mark the spot where the water must be. It’s in front corner. Then drill at this using an l1A6-inch bit. A drill is suggested; a hand drill would wear out the operator. There’s still a water open on the top of the 302 so a 351-C inlet manifold has to be used; and since it has no water provision, it will seal off the 302 port(s). Head gaskets from a 351-C four-barrel (D0AZ-6051-C) are required. When Boss 302 heads are used, 302 valve springs (D0ZZ-6513-A), spring seats (C9ZZ-GA536-A) and retainers (C9ZZ-6514-A) are also to be used.

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ABOVE – New-style Mustang doesn’t handle as well as its ’70 version. but in Boss form it can hardly be called a slouch. This one came without an abundance of add-ons, which weren’t missed.

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ABOVE – Muscular Fords feature Traction-Lok differential that is a spring-loaded clutch pack unit. It feels a lot like a ratchet-type limited slip,and doesn’t cost extra on Boss 351s.

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ABOVE – Cleveland built Boss blocks start life with four-bolt main bearing caps. Even though production bearings work fine for most applications, premium main and rod bearings with tin-babbit overplate called 351-C “GT,” are available through Autolite-Ford.

Now that the Boss 351 is a item, simply substituting these heads on a conventional Cleveland engine involves no machine work, but they’ll be somewhat rare for a few months, and not as cheap as performing surgery on the cylinder heads outlined above. When going to the “Boss” stage, it’s wise to increase carburetor size. Autolite-Ford recommends an 850-cfm unit such as a Holley R-4781-AAA. This is a dual-pumper unit, and initial jetting should be No. 80 on both primary and secondary sides. At this point, the basic Cleveland engine is identical to a Boss 351 in all respects save for four-bolt mains. Even these can be had from speed equipment manufacturers. The Ford crew retained the Cleveland heads on their car, and with everything buttoned up, it ran 13.80 seconds e.t. and a speed of 104.02 mph. By the way, all runs at each stage were made with street tires mounted and with exhaust system capped up. In other words, they equaled the times of our ’71 Boss 351. This Cleveland-design engine is a “clean”-burning powerplant. Ford wouldn’t release actual figures on emission counts, but the Boss 351 is able to pass established emission levels without the aid of a thermactor (air pump), despite its having features that traditionally hinder low smog readings. Our test Boss didn’t get overly thirsty on fuel either, reaching a “high” of 14.50 mpg and a low of 11.58 miles per gallon. The ’70 Boss Mustang handled better than this one, perhaps because it didn’t have an Autolite four-barrel that starved out halfway through a hard corner. Ford now installs, at extra cost, the Saginaw variable-ratio steering, and we can’t say it works as well on the Mustang as it does on the Camaro. The Camaro has its steering linkage mounted ahead of the front crossmember, and the variable ratio serves more to bring the steering back to neutral than anything else. But the Mustang has its steering linkage behind the crossmember, and the variable-ratio unit induces a sometimes “shaky” oversteer. It might be okay for matrons in LTDs with bedspring suspension, but the Boss 351 doesn’t need it.

The ’71 Mustang is a long way from that refined Falcon-based Mustang we all gaped at in 1964, and for that, present Mustang owners can be happy. This one feels like it’s taking on the size of a Torino (in some ways it but no matter what its shape or size may resemble it sure runs like a racer. The Boss 351 is going to salt away a few Z/28’s before its season is up.

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ABOVE – Boss heads have minimal shrouding around valves and good exhaust. 302-design head chambers measure 58.5cc on the 351, but hydraulic stick, 302 heads aren’t necessary.

BELOW – All these parts are needed for cam conversion.
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  1. CARBURETION..Autolite4-bbl spread-bore, 750cfm.1.565-in.-dia. primary bores,1.690- in.secondary bore dia.
  2. VALVE TRAIN…Mechanical lifters, .022-in. lash. 1.73:1 rocker arm ratio; 2.195-in. intake valve dia.,L.7L4-in.exhaust..491-in. lift, intake & exh. int. opens 50 degrees BTC, closes 94 degrees ABC; exhaust opens 102 degrees BBC, closes 42 degrees ATC. 324 degrees duration, intake & exhaust
  3. DRIVETRAIN,..4-speed all-synchro transmission, 1st gear, 2.78:1, 2nd, 1.93:1; 3rd, 1.36:1, 4th,1.00:1 Semi-centrifugal single disc, 11.0-in.-o.d clutch, 1845-lb. spring load Traction-Loc-equipped 3.91:1 rear gear, 9.0-inch-o.d.ring gear
  4. BRAKES…Front disc/rear drum with Bendix integral power assist 11.3-in-o.d.cast iron disc; 10.0-in.-dia.rear drum, 185.1-sq.-in. effective lining area
  5. WHEELS & TIRES..15- x 7.0-in. steel, “zero offset” wheels; F60-15 Goodyear polyglas tires. 4.5-in.bolt circle, .50-in.-dia. lug studs
  6. SUSPENSION…Front: Independent single lateral arms with drag strut. 130-lb.-per-in. wheel rate, coil spring mounted over upper arm. 1.18-in.-dia piston tube shocks; .85-in.- dia. stabilizer bar. Rear:Semi-elliptical 53 x 2.5-in. rear leaf springs, 134-lb.-per-in. rate at wheel 1.18-in.piston dia. tube shocks, staggered .50-in.-dia. stabilizer bar
  7. STEERING…Saginaw integral power-assisted with variable ratio. 16.0:1 constant gear ratio; 20.2:1 constant overall ratio. 3.40 turns lock to lock. 15.0-in.-dia wheel. 39.8 ft. turning dia., curb to curb
  8. PERF0RMANCE. Quarter-mile(best):13.589 sec., 107.52 mph
  9. DIMENSIONS.. Wheelbase: 109.0in.; front track:61.5in.; reartrack:61.0in; over- all height:50:1in.; overall width:74.1in.; overall length:189.5in.; test weight:3625 lb.; body/frame construction; unitized; fuel tank capacity:20gal

Ford’s Boss 429 – An analysis

I decided I would get a few articles from the time period that talk about the Boss 429 and the 351 Cleveland. They are interesting reads especially when compared with what is said today. Check out this one from the January 1970 edition of “Car Craft”

CarCraftJan1970 Boss429

Boss 429 – An analysis by Terry Cook

Page 36 | CAR CRAFT | JANUARY 1970

Ford’s Boss 429, Blue Crescent, Shotgun Motor, Twisted Hemi, call it what you like. Many people are calling it a stone. Going in we decided to discard all the poor reports we had received on the Boss 429 engine and try to approach it from a fair and impartial standpoint, to give the engine, and Ford, an even chance.

In the following pages we have evaluated the Boss 429 from four different standpoints: as a totally stock “out of the box” showroom new product; as a slightly modified street and strip dual purpose performer; in several all-out fully drag strip-prepared cars; and, finally, on Crane Engineering’s dynamometer. In addition, for your edification, we are including the big inch aluminum block offshoot of the Boss 429, the 494. After conducting the four-pronged test we have concluded, as have others, that the Boss 429 engine fails in its present form when applied to the street performance situation. While the engine may be dominating the NASCAR Grand National Stock Car circuit down south, it seems to lack when tested on the drag strip. Although an industrious few – like Dave Lyall, Wayne Gapp, and the guys at Foulger Ford – have made semi-respectable showings with the engine, the Boss 429, to date, is a loser in the drag car bailiwick. The purpose of the text that follows is to tell you the reasons the Boss 429 has fared and failed, and to suggest how the situation, which is a lot bigger than the Boss 429, might be alleviated.

The answer, lies in Ford Motor Company’s approach to the whole performance car market.

Originally, the Boss 429 was developed with NASCAR (Grand National Stock Car) racing as the primary application, but as with the SOHC Ford engine, a secondary outlet for the equipment was found in drag racing. In order to legalize the Boss 429 engine for NASCAR use, 500 of the engines had to be built and offered in an available car, thus the Boss 429 Mustang was born. Because the engine was designed strictly for the NASCAR circuit, it is tailored to operate at high rpm’s. This fact can be quickly verified by checking the size of the intake and exhaust ports. They are enormous, and are generally inefficient’ at low rpm ranges.

As is common with many of Detroit’s “crash” programs, the 429 design engineers had a very limited time (in this instance only three months) to transform their NASCAR Stocker engine to a street performance car package. Although the engine was not originally designed or intended for street use, the engineers waded into the job. During the transformation from race engine to street motor, certain compromises had to be made for production and warranty reasons. For example, a single four-barrel 735 cfm carb was chosen, which is street-able, but not exactly a performance induction system for an engine of this size. Also, a massive weight valve train

was used in the street version of the Boss, which, together with the 1969 hydraulic camshaft, resulted in a performance peak of 5400 rpm. Anything close to the 5500 rpm from the engine was inviting valve float. Remember that the engine was primarily designed for high rpm operation, but because of the cost of the lightweight valves was prohibitive for production use, heavy valves were used and thus the street engine was not capable of the needed high rpm’s and another inherent problem was created. Although Ford put a 370 horsepower figure on the street version of the Boss 429 engine, the NHRA re-factored it to SS/D, which didn’t help Ford’s chances at the drags.

But the key to all of Ford’s problems with the performance cars and the thing that really put the blocks to the Boss 429 Mustang was that corporation’s Product Acceptability Standard (P.A.S.). The edict handed down from the higher-ups at Ford says that any car made and sold by the company must start when the engine is hot, start in cold weather, idle, run in traffic in fourth gear, and run smoothly at 20, 60 and 80 mph, just like a Lincoln Continental. In addition, the P.A.S. demands that the engine compartment, passenger compartment, and overall noise levels must not exceed a certain maximum. Then there’s always the performance car’s friend, the emission regulations, which are getting tighter every year. Put it all together and you can see that the Ford engineers had to do the impossible: build a production car that starts and behaves as docile as a Thunderbird, yet runs like Wayne Gapp’s injected gas Funny car. They managed to meet the P.A.S., thus the Boss 429 doesn’t make it as a muscular performer.

In comparison, the 429’s drag strip competitors, especially Plymouth and Dodge, don’t have the rigid acceptability standards that serve to strangle performance. A Road Runner or Hemi Barracuda will idle a bit rougher and stumble a bit in fourth gear when you try to lug it around in traffic at 20 mph. However, step on the throttle of a 383 Dodge or Plymouth and you’ll blow any stock Boss 429 Mustang directly into the weeds. Even the 340 Darts and Dusters, let alone Chevy’s Z-28, may give the Boss a tough row to hoe. While the Chrysler and General Motors products do have certain standards they must live up to, they don’t choke their performance cars to the point where acceleration is drastically hampered. Until Ford Motor Compony loosens their Product Acceptability Standard for their performance cars, they will continue to take a back seat to General Motors and Chrysler Corporation in performance. The emission laws are one insurmountable obstacle, but there is no government legislation that says a Boss 429 (or Cobra Jet) must ride like a Lincoln. We want to see Ford improve their position and penetration in the Muscle Car market, but the higher-ups at Ford think a competitive car is one that can spin street tires on wet pavement. Until they start making and selling cars that can hold their own against the competition on the nation’s drag strips, Ford will miss their due shore of the performance pie.

Drag Strip Applications

Ford’s factory-backed drag racers haven’t tried the Boss 429 because they were (1) unable to get parts from Ford (Montgomery & Robinson), or because (2) they wanted to see someone else make it work first. Kalitta has had limited success at the toll of much parts breakage, but two Ford employees, dyno operator Dave Lyall and design engineer Waye Gapp, have made the best drag strip showings with the Boss 429 to date. Gapp has a gas injected Funny which has run a strong 9.02-152. Lyall has two cars. The first is an NHRA SS/D Mustang which has run 11.24-124, but sincy you need 10.8’s on the 11.00 class e.t. record to be competitive, Dave feels the engine should be refactored to a lower class. Lyall’s other car is a gutted 3000-pound heads-up Super Stocker with glass fenders, doors, etc. The heads-up engine has a stock strock NASCAR crank, M/T aluminum rods and 13.4:1 pistons, polished ports, a Cran or Holman & Moody flat tappete cam, lightened rockers, and home-built dual four-barrel induction system. The car has turned 10.21-134.92 which is great for a Boss 429, but hardly enough on a circuit that requires 9.8’s to win. Gapp and Lyall are both doing a commendable job of exploring the engine’s potential, but unless Ford makes the parts available and the “names” try Boss 429’s in place of their ‘cammers’ the drag strip prognosis for the Boss 429 engine is, at best, bleak

Above – Wayne Gapp’s injected gas funny has run low nines.

Below – Dave Lyall and his respectable low-ten Boss 429.

Rumors of the 351 Cleveland – 351 “Cyclone” for ’70

There’s quite a few tidbits in this article. What Mercury’s racing budget was going to look like. Obviously we’re seeing the beginning of the end of Ford’s racing involvement.

There’s a mention of ‘AHRA Standout Wayne Gapp’. You know that guy, right?

Lastly, the 351 Cleveland. For a variety of reason I really like this engine. My favorite part of the article is the comparison of the 351 Windsor head vs. the 351 Cleveland 2V head vs. the 351 Cleveland 4v head. BIG ports.

Here’s the cover for the magazine




351 “Cyclone” for ’70

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The canted valve “Cleveland” head is just one feature of Lincoln-Mercury’s new entry in the middleweight muscle motor market

By John Raffa

THROUGHOUT LATE 1968 AND INTO THE EARLY SPRING OF 1969, RUMORS RAN RAMPANT IN PERFORMANCE CIRCLES concerning the future (and non-future) of Lincoln-Mercury Division’s racing efforts. One of the strongest reports had it that Mercury would drop their NASCAR racing efforts effective with the beginning of the 1970 season, meaning that the proud Merc banner would not fly at Daytona ‘7·0, and that such L-M circle track greats as Lee Roy Yarbrough and Cale Yarborough would have to seek seats behind different marques. Sadly, these rumors could not be refuted by higher-ups during a recent trip to division headquarters.

The next rumors that flowed in under the door purported that all Mercury activities in performance areas would cease for ’70; i.e., such drag racing names as Nicholson and Schartman would no longer be listed on Mercury performance brochures (which would themselves cease to exist) and that “Dyno” and “Fast Eddie” would be making new deals with other performance camps. Well, don’t you believe it! As of this writing – in early JuneMerc’s drag racing activities and plans for the new year are still very much alive, with Schartman, Nicholson and AHRA standout (and FoMoCo engineer) Wayne Gapp, still very much in the hi-per picture.

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Canted valves are immediately obvious upon cracking the rocker covers. Stamped steel rockers pivot on sintered iron fulcrums of 4V head and aluminum fulcrums of the 2V.

Not only is Mercury going ahead with performance plans for the drag racing world, but the racing types in Dearborn are all a-twitter about a brand new canted valve mill that will be introduced shortly after midSeptember. It.looks to be a real stormer in the growingly popular medium displacement field, and is already considerably whispered about as the “Cleveland” engine. Looking to see what all the loud whispering was about, we we were graciously admitted into L-M’s engine development labs during preproduction tests and we observed the following.

The most modern Merc mill displaces 351 inches, and before you yell, “Hey, that’s not new,” read on. Mercury personnel have a ready reply to cut short that statement. The response goes, “The 351-C is so different from last year’s model that even the spark plugs are different!” And that’s the truth.  The 351-C heads (the “C” stands for their origin point, L-M’s Cleveland foundry, where the new heads are cast, and gives the name to the new “Cleveland” series) use 14mm plugs to allow use of the biggest valves possible and still retain sufficient cooling. But we’re a bit ahead of ourselves. Let’s look at the overall engine in a little detail first.

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Nodular Iron crank is common to both the 2V and 4V configurations. Two bolt main design proved reliable in initial tests but can be changed to four bolt if necessary.

Immediately identifying the new open chamber design, while the 4V (4- barrel carb) head has the “advanced wedge” shape with approximately 72.5% quench area. Valve sizes for the 2V are 2.03 intake and 1.65 exhaust, while 4V readings are 2,19 and 1.71. The engineering part number on the 4V 351-C head assembly is D0AE-6049-G, while the engineering part number on the 2V head assembly is D0AE-6049-F.Another difference in the 2V and 4V heads is in the rocker arm fulcrum materials: for the 4V, they’re made from sintered iron, while those on the 2Y are of aluminum. Rockers are identical on both models, fashioned of lightweight stamped steel.

Getting back to the short block, we find that 2V and 4V models share a common crankshaft, made from nodular iron. Cranks in both t’C” engines are attached with two-bolt mains; although the block was designed so that four-bolt mains can be fitted a bit later, if needed. In testing so far, the twobolt design has shown no fatigue on the lower end of..either model, Pistons for both are cast aluminum and are holding up well in tests for either c.r. figure. They’re fastened to the connecting rods by pressed pins. Rod bearing sizes are 2 5/16 inches and the crank’s five main bearings measure 2 3/4 inches.

In the camshaft bores, the only grind tested to date are those designed to meet IMCO emission systems requirements, though we expect to have more to report from that department a little later on especially from after-market grinders within the performance industry.

Oiling for the “C” engines is similar to that found on older “385” series models, using a conventional oil pump with oil forced to the rockers through tubular pushrods. The pump body is of cast iron. Firing of the 14mm plugs, at this point in the engine’s development, is by a conventional single point, dual diaphragm Autolite unit.

Weight of the “Cleveland” engine looks to be right around 580 pounds with manifold attached, but less flywheel; and transrnissions available will be a 3-speed all-synchro model as standard, with a torque converter automatic or choice of two four-speeds (close and wide ratio) as options.

We realize that details are a little sketchy as reported here, but as we said near the start, we just got our first look and compiled the attending data some time before the “Cleveland” went into production. We were assured at that time, though, that further changes would only be in the way of refinements, the nature of which we’ll report to you at the earliest possible date. We thought you’d like to see it first in the pages of CC, anyway.

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Intake, exhaust and combustion chamber view of heads, left to right, contrast 351 “Windsor” design (left) with open chambered 2V (center) and partial quench 4V (right)

Next month, we’ll be taking a long look at the L-M Division automobiles in which you’ll find the new “Cleveland” stormers, along with a complete report on all the other powerplants in the Merc line. And, of course, we’ll be tracking down all the latest rumors on Merc’s participation in the performance world for 1970. As the man said, “join us, won’t you?

From Car Craft, August of 1969.


Cars Magazine Top Shop Series: Gapp & Roush



From a not-so-small shop in Livonia, Michigan, Wayne Gapp and Jack Roush apply their winning formula to make Fords fly

By Bob McClurg

Do you suppose when Ford Motor Company came out with the Boss 351 they even imagined that teams like Gapp and Roush would have the Cleveland running 8.70’s in Pro Stock? No one can argue with the success achieved by the Livonia, Michigan, Ford wizards. Their advances in racing engine development are second to none and they have one hell of an impressive track record to go with it.

You’ve seen Gapp and Roush at the races. The World Champions had themselves a pretty good year in ’73 with their Pinto, and their new Mustang II and super-controversial Maverick four-door sedan arent’ doing all that bad in the Pro Stock wars this year.

Gapp and Roush are true engineers in every sense of the word. They are thorough no-nonsense types who seem to keep coming up with new innovations to make Ford products fly. Their high-port 351 Pro Stock heads, front dry sump systems and complete racing engines and cars have made them the kingpins of Ford quarter-mile racing–and they have themselves one hell of a circle track clientele to boot.


Caption: Above, the head work room,
birthplace of Gapp & Roush Hi-Port Boss 351.


Caption: Left, Ford engineer Bill Jameson
reduces the block height on a 351 to accept a set of G&R heads

Schoolcraft Road in Livonia is where the team calls home. Their shop, like their race cars, is no-nonsense. If you order a part, they either have it or they don’t. If it’s in stock, or they can get it for you, they let you know how soon you can get it right along with the price, and you can depend on what they say.

The Gapp and Roush operation proper began in early 1971, but Wayne and Jack’s involvement with engineering and racing goes back at least a decade before.

At age 35, Wayne has behind him a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Illinois and a number of years of service at Ford’s Engine Design Department. Among the many projects Gapp has worked on while at Ford are the 427 Cammer and the Boss 429 programs.

His talent as an organizer which clearly shows in the current operation stems back to the days when he and a group of fellow Ford engineers belonged to an inter-company racing group called the “Hi-Risers”. Among Gapp’s duties there was at the wheel of the club’s race car – a ’65 altered wheelbase factory cammer Comet, one of the original five made. That was in 1966. It was Wayne’s first real race car, and the machine graduated from club car to match racer, and gave the Ford Engineer much of the driving lessons which would later pay off.

The “Hi-Risers” club eventually fell apart, but continued to race. He then built a ’67 Cougar Funny Car. The injected machine was cammer powered, and alternated between gasoline and nitromethane according to the need. The Cougar made the rounds for a couple of years, and was then replaced by a Logghe-chassied ’69 Mach I Mustang powered by a injected Boss 429.

The Mustang did quite well, and mid-season was sold to Drake Viscome who was also quite successful with the car. With the sale came the decision by Wayne to return to heads-up racing.

Prior to Roush’s meeting with his partner, the 32-year-old engineer in Mathematics and Automotive Engineering worked for both Ford and Chrysler in various engineering facilities. Jack belonged to a counter racing group at Ford called the ‘Fastbacks’ and he was on a number of different projects.

Roush’s engine building talent was put to good use in prior years before the G&R alliance. Jack is plenty sharp when it comes to assembling thundering racing engines.

The team’s original effort was a heads up and, then legal, Pro Stock Maverick called the “Shotgun Express”. The Maverick was powered by a Boss 429, and ran consistent 9.70’s. This was at a time when the Boss motor was under much attack by everyone. Many people stated that the engine was poorly designed, the ports were too big, the heads a nightmare, etc., but Gapp and Roush took their engineering skill and made the Boss 429 run, and they are to this day the Number One authorities on the engine.

“Shotgun Express” Number 2 came about in early 1972. This car, also a Maverick, ran 9.50’s and it was one of the original Ford team cars on the United States Racing Team. But ’72 was the year of the Jenkins Invasion, and G&$ knew that the Boss 351 and the Pinto would have to be the way to go in the future. The team built a fairly mild Pinto for mainly R&D research. The car ran quite well, and taught the team a lot. In fact, it also turned out to be quite a winner at the hands of Gapp and the car’s second owner, Bob Glidden.

Tube frame cars came into necessity in ’73, and the team brought a new Wolverine-chassied Pinto to the West Coast for the NHRA Winternationals.


Caption: One of G&R’s Boss 351’s is lowered
into the Maverick for the Summernationals.
(ed. note: Louis Woslinski on the right)


Caption: An inside look at the G&R operation.
The team cars are getting ready for a big race.


Caption: The first Mustang II, on it way to Low ET at Gainesville (9.02), and runner-up with Roush at the wheel.

Unpainted, the car ran quite well, and finished the race three weeks later fresh and in paint. The car then went to Gainesville where it set Low E.T. of the meet (9.02), and was runner-up to Nicholson. From there on it was races like the World Championships, the NHRA Supernationals, the Pop Hot Rodding Meet and a bunch more.

A trip to Gapp and Roush Performance is like stepping out of the cold into Ford Heaven. In the front lobby of the shop’s office is a Boss 429 engine on a stand left over from the earlier days. Some office conversation piece. The main office is usually occupied by Wayne’s wife, Diana, who answers the telephones, does teh billing and tries to keep a firm hand on all the fan mail and correspondence. Step into the shop itself and you are surrounded by three winning Ford race cars, more Boss 351 engines than you can shake a stick at, and whatever exotic machinery is needed to transform stock Ford into a racing piece. If you can avoid the scurry of Wayne, Jack, Louis, Ford Engineers Al Buckmaster, Bill Jameson, and three other employees, you’ll notice that the engine building room and head preparation rooms are on your right. Jack and his helpers can usually be located in this area either putting together custom engines or doing head work. Up on the walls, all around the shop, you’ll find parts, parts, and more parts. Whether they happen to be stock Ford, specialty manufactured or a piece from the G&R line, the team tries to carry every piece needed to transform that Ford into a Pro Stock, Circle Track or Modified performer. Like Wayne puts it “We try to have all the unique things that no one else carries; anything that makes a Ford engine run, we carry.”

A trip to Gapp and Roush Performance is indeed a experience. From out of engineering came a winning team, and from a winning team came a thriving business. Out of Ford Motor Company’s “Better Idea” program came the Boss 351 engine and out of the 351 came the Gapp and Roush “Better Idea”.

Gapp beats Jenkins with 8.61 – article from Drag News

Gapp beats Jenkins with 8.61

On October 4, 1974 Drag News published the following:

NUMIDIA, Penna. – Numidia’s policy to hire the best match races possible is certaintly paying off as one of the biggest crowds of the year were present to witness a best 2 out of 3 between Bill Jenkins and Gapp & Roush. It was impossible to contain the crowd as two cars came to the line for round 1. After the usual burnouts the cars staged and in 8.82 seconds it was all over. The Grump bumped Wayne Gapp in 8.82–153.58 mph to the Ford’s quicker 8.79–152.

The second round Jenkins fouled and Gapp tore up the strip in pursuit, the little Ford ran its best time of the day setting a new Pro Stock record at 8.61 to Grump’s fouling 9.06–149.50.

Everything hung on the third and final round and the first round reversed itself as Gapp ran a slower, but winning 8.88 to Jenkins 8.79. Once again Gapp won it all, the match race and a new MPH track record at 154.10.


Wayne Gapp readies for his record setting run.